Malcolm Wells was an architect who advocated environmentally responsible design and promoted the idea of earth-sheltered architecture—that is, buildings at least partly underground. Wells is sometimes regarded as "the father of modern earth-sheltered architecture." Wells lived on Cape Cod, and practiced what he preached by living in a modern earth-sheltered building of his own design. Wells was also a writer, illustrator, draftsman, lecturer, cartoonist, columnist, and solar consultant. Malcolm Wells retired from the active practice of architecture in June 2004,[ although he continued his advocacy for underground living to the end of his life. There is an active Yahoo Group in which his works are discussed. His work in architecture and design began in 1953. After 10 years "spent spreading corporate asphalt on America in the name of architecture," he began to feel that the Earth's surface was "made for living plants, not industrial plants;" and took up the challenge of underground architecture. This was reflected in his semi-underground office at Cuthbert Blvd and Park Blvd in Cherry Hill, NJ, adjacent to the Cooper River. His interests are in energy efficiency, aesthetics, land preservation and restoration "A Regeneration-based Checklist for Design and Construction", and durability of materials, among other aspects. His books have sold over 120,000 copies to similarly minded designers and to laymen alike.